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                2020北京公安消防考軍校招聘考試資料:直接引語和間接引語用法講解

                來源:長理職培發布時間:2020-04-08 22:07:42
                一、概述

                引用或轉述別人說的話時有兩種方法:直接引述別人的原話,這叫做直接引語(direct speech)。用自己的話轉述別人的話,叫間接引語(indirect speech)。一般地講,直接引語前后要加引號,間接引語不用引號,而用賓語從句來表達。

                Mr. Black said, "I'm busy."布菜克先生說:"我很忙"。(直接引語)

                Mr. Black said that he was busy.布菜克先生說他很忙。(賓語從句是間接引語)

                從上例看來,直接引語改為間接引語時,除將直接引語改為賓語從句之外,還須對直接引語中的人稱和時態進行相應的變化,如上例直接引語中的I改成了he, am則改成了was。現將由直接引語改為間接引語時應注意的問題,分述如下:

                二、直接引語是陳述句時

                直接引語如果是陳述句,變為間接引語時,用連詞that引導(that在口語中常省去),that從句之前用say、tell等動詞,從句中的人稱、時態、指示代詞、時間狀語、地點狀語等要作相應的變化。

                1、 人稱的變化

                直接引語改為間接引語人稱要相應的變化,把直接引語中的第一人稱(如:I,me,my,mine,we,us,our,ours)變為與主句的主語相一致的人稱。把直接引語中的第二人稱(you,your,yours)變為和主句的間接賓語(即聽話人,如無聽話人,可根據上下文的體會人為確定一個人稱)相一致的人稱。直接引語中的第三人稱(he,him,his,she,her,hers,it,its,they,their,theirs,them)變為間接引語時,人稱不變。

                He said , "I like it very much." 他說:"我非常喜歡它"。

                →He said that he liked it very much. 他說他非常喜歡它。(I改為he, it不變)

                He said, "You told me this story."他說:"你給我講過這個故事。"

                →He said that I had told him that story.他說我給他講過那個故事。(You改為I, me改為him, told改為had told)

                He said to me, "She's left her book in your room".他對我說:"她把書放在你的房間里去了。"


                 
                He told me that she had left her book in my room. 他對我說她把書放在我的房間里去了。(She's→she had, her不變,your→my)

                2、 時態的變化

                (1)主句的謂語動詞是一般過去時

                如主句的謂語動詞是一般過去時,直接引語變間接引語時,從句的謂語動詞在時態方面要作相應的變化。直接引語改為間接引語時,動詞時態相應變化表:

                He said, "I usually watch TV on Sunday."他說:"我常在星期天看電視"。

                →He said that he usually watched TV on Sunday.他說他常在星期天看電視。

                He said, "I'm using the knife."他說:"我正在用小刀。"

                →He said that he was using the knife.他說他正在用小刀。

                She said, "I have not heard from him since May."她說:"自從五月份來我就沒收到他的來信。"

                →She said that she had not heard from him since May. 她說自五月以來她就沒收到他的來信。

                He said,"I came to help you."他說:"我來幫助你。"

                →He said that he had come to help me.他說他來幫助我。

                He said, "I had finished my homework before supper."他說:"晚飯前我己做完了作業。"

                →He said that he had finished his homework before supper.他說晚飯前他己做完了作業。


                 
                Zhou Lan said, "I'll do it after class."周蘭說:"下課后我就去做。"

                →Zhou Lan said that she would do it after class.周蘭說下課后她就去做。

                He said,"I shall be doing my homework then."他說:"那時我將正在做作業。"

                →He said that he should be doing his homework then.他說那時他將正在做作業。

                He said, "We shall have finished the work by that time."他說:"我們將在那時以前完成工作。"

                →He said that they should have finished the work by that time.他說他們將在那時前完成工作。

                注意:直接引語如果是客觀真理、名人名言、與一個具體的過去時間連用說明客觀事實時,變為間接引語時,時態不變。

                The teacher said, "The earth is round. "老師說:"地球是圓的。"

                →The teacher said that the earth is round.老師說地球是圓的。

                He said, "I was born in Shangdong in 1965." 他說: "我1965年生于山東。"

                →He said that he was born in Shangdong in 1965. 他說他1965年生于山東。

                He said, "Columbus discovered America in 1492."他說:"哥倫布在1492年發現了美洲。"

                →He said Columbus discovered America in 1492.他說哥倫布在1492年發現了美洲。

                (2)主句的謂語動詞是現在時或將來時

                如果主句的謂語動詞是現在時或將來時,直接引語變為間接引語時,時態一律不變

                He says, "I finished the work."他說:"我做完工作了。"

                He says that he finished the work. 他說他做完工作了。

                He will say, "I have watered the flowers." 他會說:"我己經澆花了。"

                He will say he has watered the flowers. 他會說他己經澆花了。

                3、指示代詞、時間狀語和地點狀語的相應變化

                見下表:

                直接引語    間接引語

                指示代詞    this/these    that/those

                時間狀語    now    then

                today    that day

                tonight    that night

                this week (month…)    that week (month…)

                yesterday    the day before

                last week (month…)    the week (month…)before

                two weeks (month)ago    two weeks (months)before

                tomorrow    the next day

                next week (month…)    the next week (month…)

                地點狀語    here    there

                動 詞    come    go

                bring    take

                He said, "I met Mr. Smith this morning."他說"我今天早晨見到史密斯了。"

                He said that he had met Mr. Smith that morning. 他說他那天早晨見到史密斯了。


                 
                He said, "We went to the cinema yesterday." 他說:"我們昨天去電影院了。"

                →He said they had gone to the cinema the day before. 他說前一天他們去電影院了。

                Lily said, "I will come back next month." 莉莉說:"我下個月回來。"

                →Lily said that she would go back the next month. 莉莉說她下一個月就回去。

                He said, "It is nine o'clock now."他說:"現在九點了。"

                →He said that it was nine o'clock then.他說那時九點了。

                He said, "I haven't seen her today."他說:"今天我沒見到她。"

                →He said that he hadn't seen her that day .他說那天他沒有見到她。

                She said, "I went there yesterday."她說:"昨天我去了那兒。"

                →She said that she had gone there the day before.她說前一天她去了那兒。

                She said, "I'll go there tomorrow."她說:"明天我將去那兒。"

                →She said that she would go there the next day.她說第二天她將去那兒。

                He said, "My sister was here three days ago."他說:"三天前我妹妹在這兒。"

                →He said that his sister had been there three days before.他說三天前他妹妹在那兒。(here→there; ago→before)

                She said, "I will come here this evening."她說:"今晚我將來這兒。"

                →She said that she would go there that evening.她說那晚她將去那兒。(come→go;here→there;this→that)


                 
                以上這些變化,要根據說話的具體時間和具體地點的情況而定,不可機械照搬。如果就在當地轉述,here就不必改為there, come也不必改為go,如果就在當天轉述,yesterday或tomorrow等時間狀語也不必改變。直接引語中的一般過去時如與一個具體的過去時間狀語連用,間接引語的一般過去時時態不變。

                Father said,"I am free this afternoon "父親說:"我今天下午有空。"

                →Father said that he was free this afternoon. 父親說他今天下午有空。

                He said, "I am going there tomorrow."他說"我明天去那里。"

                He said that he was going there tomorrow. 他說他明天去那里。

                巧記:去掉引號加that,人稱變化要靈活,時態向后退一步,狀語變化按規定。

                三、直接引語是疑問句時

                直接引語如為疑問句,改為間接引語時,須將疑問句的語序改為陳述句的語序。其人稱、時態等相應的變化同上。

                巧記:if(或whether)替引號,陳述語序要記牢。時態人稱和狀語要變化,千萬別把它忘掉。

                1、直接引語是一般問句

                變為間接引語時,須用連接詞whether或if將其引出,使其成為間接引語的賓語從句。如果主句中的謂語動詞為said,則將其改為asked。如果謂語動詞后沒有間接賓語,可以加上一個間接賓語me, him, her, them, us等。

                She said, "Is your father an engineer?" 她說:"你父親是工程師嗎?"

                →She asked me whether my father was an engineer.她問我說我父親是否是工程師。

                The teacher said to Li Ming, "Have you finished your homework?"老師對李明說:"你做完作業了嗎?"

                →The teacher asked Li Ming whether he had finished his homework.老師問李明是否已做完作業了。

                2、直接引語是特殊問句

                如果直接引語為特殊疑問句, 改為間接引語時,仍用特殊疑問句中的疑問詞what, where, when, who, how many作為連接詞將其引出,構成間接引語中的賓語從句,但須將疑問式的動詞改為陳述式。如果主句中的謂語動詞為said,則將其改為asked。

                巧記:直接去引號,陳述語序莫忘掉。助動do(does)、did,要去掉。

                "What do you do every Sunday morning?"my friend said to me.我的朋友問我說,每星期天上午你做什么?

                →My friend asked me what I did every Sunday morning. 我的朋友問我每星期天上午我做什么。


                 
                "Where have you been, Li Ming?"the teacher asked. 老師問道:"你上哪里去了,李明?"

                →The teacher asked Li Ming where he had been. 老師問李明曾去過哪兒。

                I asked her, "How many English books will you read next term?" 我問她說:"下學期你將讀多少本英語書? "

                →I asked her how many English books she would read the next term.我問她下學期將讀多少本英文書。

                "When did you get up this morning?"asked my father.我父親問道:"今天早晨你什么時候起床的?"

                →My father asked me when I had got up that morning. 我父親問我那天早晨我是什么時候起床的。

                注意: 直接引語里是:What's wrong with……?/What's the matter? /What's the trouble?/What has happened?/等特殊疑問句時,間接引語的語序不變。

                He said to her"What's the matter with you?"他問她"你怎么了?"

                He asked her what was the matter with her. 他問她怎么了。

                四、直接引語是祈使句

                巧記:去掉引號要加to;ask,order須記住,直引若是否定式,not加在to前部。

                轉述祈使句時,要使祈使句的動詞原形變為帶to的不定式,并在不定式的前面根據句子的意思加上tell、ask、order等動詞,如果祈使句為否定式,在不定式的前面加not。如果祈使句中有please一詞,改為間接引語時,就將please去掉。成為:told (asked, ordered, warned)someone (not)to do something結構。

                He said,"Sit down, please." 他說:"請坐。"

                →He asked me to sit down. 他讓我坐下。

                The teacher said, "Don't talk in class! " 老師說:"上課不要講話! "

                →The teacher told us not to talk in class!老師要我們上課不要講話。

                The captain said to his men,"Fire! "上尉對他的士兵們說"開火!"

                →The captain ordered his men to fire. 上尉命令他的士兵們開火!

                The policeman said to the children,"Don't play football in the middle of the street."警察對孩子們說:"別在馬路中間踢足球。"

                →The policeman warned the children not to play football in the middle of the street.警察警告孩子們不要在馬路中間踢足球。

                責編:李思

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